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Air Pollution

Overview

While the health benefits of exercise via cycling are estimated to substantially exceed any health impacts related to air pollution exposure or injuries from traffic collisions, cyclists are known to experience elevated exposures to traffic-related air pollutants. In addition, our research on cycling motivators and deterrents identified traffic-related air pollution exposure and traffic as major factors influencing the choice to make a trip by bicycle.

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between traffic-related air pollution exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular health impacts in commuting cyclists. Specifically, we are

  • measured commuting cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (PM 2.5, PM10, ultrafine particulate) while cycling along two different bicycle routes in the city of Vancouver;
  • estimated the pollutant dose received by each cyclist by accounting for changes in breathing rates, and related this to the health effects observed; and
  • determined if there was a change in lung function, endothelial function (a measure of the health of the cells that line the inside of blood vessels), measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6), and a measure of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) related to the level of air pollution exposure and estimated pollutant dose.

An article in the Huffington Post outlines the issues.

Methods

This study used a randomized (single) blinded crossover design. Each subject bicycled along two separate routes, while air pollutant levels along each of the routes were measured. Before and after each cycling session, subjects’ lung function and endothelial dysfunction were measured and a blood sample was collected. While cycling, subjects wore a heart rate monitor, and a cycling computer measured and recorded their work rate. At the end of each cycling session subjects’ minute ventilation was measured and related to their heart rate and work rate by cycling in the laboratory on a stationary bike while breathing into a respirometer. This helped us understand how much the cyclist breathed at different levels of effort throughout the ride. The health endpoints were endothelial function, lung function and markers of inflammation.

Results

In comparisons of health indicators after cycling downtown (higher traffic) versus along the residential routes (lower traffic), endothelial function was found to be on average 21% lower after cycling on the more polluted downtown route. Females and older participants experienced larger decreases. Endothelial function improved after cycling on the residential route. None of the other measures were different between the two routes.Although, the downtown route had levels of ultrafine particles ~ 60% higher than the residential route, other factors – besides air pollution – may have been responsible for the effects on endothelial function. Cycling increased breathing rates by 3.5 times compared to at rest.

Implications

Active transportation is a non-polluting form of transportation, and is increasingly encouraged by public health agencies as a way to improve air quality as well as physical fitness. While exercise is promoted as healthy behaviour, cyclists may experience higher doses of air pollution compared to other transportation modes due to their elevated breathing rates and cycling in proximity to traffic, especially during periods of elevated air pollution.

Interestingly, although ultrafine particle exposures and intakes were higher along the downtown route, the lack of association between air pollutant exposure or intake with endothelial function and other measures suggests that other factors on the downtown route may have influenced endothelial function.

The information from this study may be useful for providing advice to the public regarding about where and when to cycle (or where to reduce motor vehicle traffic) in order to achieve health benefits while at the same time minimizing potential adverse impacts related to air pollution exposure.

Publications

The results have been published in a scientific journal.

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Simon Fraser University
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School of Population and Public Health
University of British Columbia
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Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada

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